Student Directory

Shane Lloyd

Shane Lloyd

Class Year: M4


  • M.D./Ph.D. Program

Biographical Information:

Hometown: Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada


Undergraduate Education:  BS/07 Pharmacology/University of British Columbia, Canada

Research Interests:

Research Interest:

Understanding the role of direct cell-to-cell communication via gap junctions in mediating the bone loss associated with mechanical unloading; The effect of clinical and spaceflight relevant types and doses of radiation on bone and the development of therapeutic countermeasures to prevent radiation-induced bone loss.

Advisor: Henry Donahue, PhD
Graduate Program: Cell & Molecular Biology

Thesis: "The Role of Connexin43 Gap Junction Protein in the Musculoskeletal Changes Induced by Mechanical Unloading"

Description: Communication between bone cells via gap junctionsx is integral to their ability to adapt the skeletal system in response to mechanical forces.  I have undertaken a study of hbone cell communication via Connexin 43, the predominant gap junction protein in bone, and its role in the skeletal response to mechanical unloading.  I bred Cx43 conditional knockout mice and have subjected them to a ground-based model of unloading.  I have determined that Cx43 deficiency attenuates unloading-induced bone loss, particularly in the trabecular bone compartment.  Quantitative histomorphometry data also suggests that Cx43 deficiency prevents the characteristic suppression of bone formation associated with unloading.  The next phase of my research will be to determine what mechanisms are underlying this response.  I will examine the effect of Cx43 deficiency during unloading on critical hbone signaling pathways, including the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway and RANK/RANKL/OPG axis.  These studies will be conducted both in vivo and in vitro.  I hope to be able to identify Cx43 as a potential target for the prevention of unloading-induced bone loss.

Meeting Presentations

  • 2005
    UBC Multidisciplinary Undergrad Res. Conference, Vancouver, BC
    Cleveland Clinic Symposium on Bone Loss in Space, Cleveland, OH
    Am. Soc, for Gravitational & Space Biology Annual Mtg., Reno, NV
  • 2007
    Am. Soc. for Gravitational & Space Biology Annual Mtg., San Francisco, CA
    NASA Human Res. Program Investigators Conference, League City, TX
  • 2010
    38th Scientific Assembly of the Committee on Space Research, Bremen, Germany (oral)
    Annual Meeting of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Toronto, Canada
  • 2011
    Annual Meeting of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, San Diego, CA (oral)
    Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, San Francisco, CA
  • 2012
    Penn State College of Medicine Graduate Student Research Forum, Hershey, PA (oral)
    23rd Annual James Buchanan Memorial Lecture, Hershey, PA (oral)
    Orthopaedic Research Society Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA
    Annual Meeting of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Minneapolis, MN
    5th International Workshop on Advances in the Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics of Bone Disease, Oxford, UK
  • 2013
    Orthopaedic Research Society Annual Meeting, San Antonio, TX (oral)
    Annual Meeting of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Baltimore, MD (oral)
  • 2014
    American Society for Radiation Oncology 56th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA



Leander BS, Lloyd SAJ, Marshall W, Landers SC (2006) Phylogeny of marine gregarines (Apicomplexa)-Pterospora, Lithocystis and Lankesteria-and the origin(s) of coelomic parasitism Protist 157(1):45-60 PMID: 16352468  PMCID:  (no number)

Lloyd SA, Travis ND, Lu T, Bateman TA (2007) Development of a low-dose anti-resorptive drug regimen reveals synergistic suppression of bone formation when coupled with disuse J of Applied Physio 104(3):729-38 PMID: 18174391  PMCID:  (no number)
Lloyd SA, Yuan YY, Kostenuik PJ, Ominsky MS, Lau AG, Morony S, Stolina M, Asuncion FJ, Bateman TA (2008) Soluble RANKL Induces High Bone Turnover and Decreases Bone Volume, Density and Strength in Mice Calcif Tissue Int 82(5):361-72 PMID: 18465074  PMCID:  (no number)
Lloyd SAJ, Banstra ER, Travis ND, Nelson G, Bourland JD, Pecaut MJ, Gridley DS, Willey JS, Bateman TA (2008) Spaceflight-Relevant Types of Ionizing Radiation and Cortical Bone: Potential LET Effect? Adv in Space Res 42(12):1889-97 PMID: 19122806  PMCID:  (no number)

Willey JS, Lloyd SA, Robbins ME, Bourland JD, Smith-Sielicki H, Bowman LC, Norridin RW, Bateman TA (2008) Early Increase in Osteoclast Number in Mice after Whole-Body Irradiation with 2 Gy X Rays Radiat Res 170(3):388-92 PMID: 18763868  PMCID:  PMC2597156

Lloyd SA, Yuan YY, Simske SJ, Riffle SE, Ferguson VL, Bateman TA (2009) Administration of High-Dose Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Increases Bone Turnover and Trabecular Volume Fraction J Bone Miner Met 27(5): 546-54 PMID: 19326045  PMCID:  (no number)

Lloyd SA, Donahue HJ (2010) Gap Junctions and Biophysical Regulation of Bone Cells Clin Rev in Bone and Miner Metab 8(4):189-200 PMID:  23762015  PMCID:  PMC3677790

Lloyd SA, Simske SJ, Bogren LK, Olesiak SE, Bateman TA, Ferguson VF (2011) Effects of Combined Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 and Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor on the Skeletal Properties of Mice In Vivo 25(3):297-305 PMID: 21576402  PMCID:  (no number)

Willey JS, Lloyd SA, Nelson GA, Bateman TA (2011) Ionizing Radiation and Bone Loss:  Space Exploration and Clinical Therapy Applications Clin Rev in Bone and Miner Metab 9(1):54-62 PMID: 22826690  PMCID:  PMC3401480

Willey JS, Lloyd SA, Nelson GA, Bateman TA (2011) Space Radiation and Bone Loss Gravit Space Biol 25(1):14-21 PMID:  22826632 PMCID:  PMC3401484

Lloyd SA, Lewis GS, Zhang Y, Paul EM,, Donahue HJ (2012) Connexin 43 deficiency attenuates loss of trabecular bone and prevents suppression of cortical bone formation during unloading Bone Miner Res 27(11):2359-72 PMID:  22714552  PMCID:  PMC3683470

Lloyd SA, Bandstra ER, Willey JS, Riffle SE, Tirado-Lee L, Nelson GA, Pecaut MJ, Bateman TA (2012) Effect of proton irradiation followed by hindlimb unloading on bone in mature mice:  a model of long-duration spaceflight Bone 51(4):756-64  PMCID:  PMC3601666

Lloyd SA, Loiselle AE, Zhang Y, Donahue HJ (2013) Connexin 43 Deficiency Desensitizes Bone to the Effects of Mechanical Unloading through Modulation of Both Arms of Bone Remodeling Bone 57(1):76-83 PMID:  23891909  PMCID:  (no number)

Lloyd SA, Ferguson VS, Simske SJ, Dunlap AW, Livingston EW, Bateman TA (2013) Housing in the Animal Enclosure Module Spaceflight Hardware Increases Trabecular Bone Mass in Ground-Control Mice Gravit Space Biol 1(1):1-19  PMCID:  (no number)

Lloyd SA, Zhang Y, Paul EM, Laufenberg LJ, Lang CH, Donahue HJ (2013) Interdependence of Muscle Atrophy and Bone Loss Induced by Mechanical Unloading J Bone Miner Res 29(5):1118-30  PMCID:  PMC4074925

Lloyd SA, Loiselle AE, Zhang Y, Donahue HJ (2013) Shifting Paradigms on the Role of Connexin 43 in The Skeletal Response to Mechanical Load J Bone Miner Res 29(2):275-86 PMCID:  (no number)

Loiselle AE, Lloyd SA, Paul EM, Lewis GS, Donahue HJ (2013) Inhibition of GSK-3ß Rescues the Impairments in Bone Formation and Mechanical Properties Associated with Fracture Healing in Osteoblast Selective Connexin 43 Deficient Mice PLoS One 8(11):e81399. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0881399 PMID:  24260576  PMCID:  PMC3832658



Bateman TA, Bandstra ER, Willey JS, Yuan YY, Lloyd SAJ, Bourne J (2007) How Animal Models Inform the Debate in Bone Loss During Spaceflight edited by PR Cavanaugh 1-20 Cleveland Clinic Press 189-199  ISBN:978-1-59624-093-3

Willey JS, Lloyd SA, Bateman TA (2013) Radiation Therapy-Induced Osteoporosis in Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, 8th Edition edited by CJ Rosen and JE Compston Wiley-Blackwell 728-733 ISBN:  1118453883

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